九寨沟| 曲沃| 永年| 静乐| 德安| 石拐| 青铜峡| 南木林| 克什克腾旗| 孟村| 肇东| 静海| 曲麻莱| 建瓯| 达尔罕茂明安联合旗| 仁寿| 平果| 惠农| 陇南| 莘县| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 朝天| 衡阳县| 海宁| 北仑| 玉屏| 梅里斯| 天山天池| 北辰| 石台| 兴国| 美姑| 西畴| 景县| 义县| 花溪| 垦利| 临县| 苍梧| 张掖| 惠阳| 邯郸| 班戈| 长垣| 邗江| 得荣| 吴中| 招远| 五寨| 横峰| 旬邑| 长白山| 新巴尔虎右旗| 迭部| 田东| 富川| 济宁| 南安| 治多| 江孜| 鹤壁| 高碑店| 永丰| 莘县| 石景山| 思南| 五华| 道真| 赤壁| 静乐| 昌江| 海南| 穆棱| 冠县| 盐城| 饶平| 河间| 五河| 留坝| 丹寨| 龙口| 博湖| 嘉善| 西吉| 亚东| 阿坝| 望谟| 灞桥| 漯河| 盘锦| 新干| 武陟| 突泉| 裕民| 铜川| 新平| 香格里拉| 沅陵| 兴业| 垫江| 石阡| 独山子| 巴马| 彝良| 辽宁| 信丰| 代县| 定南| 水城| 云浮| 柘城| 当雄| 江达| 怀宁| 龙游| 茂名| 沁源| 武宣| 仁寿| 略阳| 会同| 陕西| 佛山| 偃师| 黄龙| 湛江| 临澧| 安西| 罗甸| 乌鲁木齐| 红古| 宿迁| 白云矿| 邵阳市| 稻城| 会泽| 南郑| 金寨| 深圳| 夏县| 松江| 夏邑| 莎车| 焦作| 毕节| 乌拉特中旗| 永定| 天水| 公主岭| 海口| 宜春| 嘉善| 铜陵县| 长寿| 静宁| 湘阴| 德安| 黄岩| 南部| 牟定| 肃宁| 梧州| 昆明| 筠连| 平邑| 明水| 上杭| 大悟| 商河| 崇明| 山东| 大兴| 榆社| 台北县| 贵港| 汤阴| 沅江| 句容| 达县| 锦州| 改则| 靖安| 连云港| 韶关| 延吉| 巴彦| 北碚| 酉阳| 朔州| 贵溪| 广饶| 文山| 怀远| 宝鸡| 庆安| 井陉矿| 开阳| 通榆| 忻城| 铁岭县| 临武| 青白江| 杭锦旗| 饶河| 大名| 景县| 沙河| 临泽| 吉木萨尔| 苏尼特右旗| 荥经| 义马| 白城| 苍南| 尉犁| 永昌| 鄯善| 个旧| 永寿| 阆中| 五指山| 沽源| 张家川| 武汉| 云龙| 杜集| 涟水| 湟中| 保定| 基隆| 宝鸡| 宣汉| 道孚| 喀什| 绩溪| 香河| 宜昌| 凯里| 方正| 雅安| 溧水| 兴和| 泰来| 库车| 北安| 汉寿| 曲江| 盈江| 广水| 巴楚| 景东| 泾阳| 离石| 新化| 东阳| 汉中| 包头| 三江| 东丽| 金佛山| 鄢陵| 萧县| 于田|

别样“历史考”划重点:执好“四面旗”

2019-04-25 17:27 来源:北京热线010

  别样“历史考”划重点:执好“四面旗”

  ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AerialviewoftheaftermathofavolcanoeruptioninEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)Rescuersuseabackhoeloadertoclearastreetattheash-coveredvillageofSanMiguelLosLotes,inEscuintladepartment,about35kmsouthwestofGuatemalaCity,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AerialviewoftheaftermathofavolcanoeruptioninEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AroadsigncoveredwithashisseenafterFuegovolcanoeruptedinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)

AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsanimalsaretryingallpossiblewaystokeepcoolatTianjinZooastemperaturescontinuerising.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsanimalsaretryingallpossiblewaystokeepcoolatTianjinZooastemperaturescontinuerising.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsanimalsaretryingallpossiblewaystokeepcoolatTianjinZooastemperaturescontinuerising.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsanimalsaretryingallpossiblewaystokeepcoolatTianjinZooastemperaturescontinuerising.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)

  CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofTuandaoinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofQingdaoPortinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay7,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonApril16,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofQingdaoSportsCenterinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin2000(upper)andonMay13,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofZhanqiaoPierinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofMaidaoinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofOlympicSailingCenter,whichusedtobeashipyard,inQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin2000(upper)andonApril16,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)PhototakenonJune2,2018showsaChinaRailway(CR)ExpresscargotrainleavingforMinskfromShijiazhuang,northChinaeftonSaturday.(Xinhua/LiuPeiran)PhototakenonJune2,2018showsaChinaRailway(CR)ExpresscargotrainleavingforMinskfromShijiazhuang,northChinaeftonSaturday.(Xinhua/LiuPeiran)PhototakenonJune2,2018showsaChinaRailway(CR)ExpresscargotrainleavingforMinskfromShijiazhuang,northChinaeftonSaturday.(Xinhua/LiuPeiran)

  "Spiderman"NieXiaohufromHunanProvincecollectshoneyonthecliff.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Nieusesaknifetopeelthehoneyoffthebeehive.(Photo/ChinaDaily)XikouwaivillageandBaozili,andsincethenmorethan600b,331householdsinthetownhaveatotalof11,200clustersofAsianhoneybees,producing90,,000yuan($934).Nieusesaknifetopeelthehoneyoffthebeehive.(Photo/ChinaDaily)"Spiderman"NieXiaohufromHunanProvincecollectshoneyonthecliff.(Photo/ChinaDaily)"Spiderman"NieXiaohufromHunanProvincecollectshoneyonthecliff.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Nieexaminesthebeehivetomakesureitisintact.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Morethan100woodenboxeshangfromacliffinXikouwaivillage.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Bee-keepingandhoneyproductionisthrivingintheYanshanMountainsareaMorethan100woodenboxesabout60centimetershighand40centimeterswidehangfromacliffinXikouwaivillage,Fengjiabutown,Miyundistrict,,itisthelargestcliffbeefe,"nannies"sbeekeepingcooperatives,andtheycallthemselves"thespidermen".PhototakenonJune1,2018showsWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)PhototakenonJune4,2018showsaflowerinstallationinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhuZheng)PhototakenonJune2,2018showsWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)PhototakenonJune3,2018showsWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/PurbuZhaxi)PhototakenonJune3,2018showsflowersalongaroadinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/PurbuZhaxi)PhototakenonJune4,2018showsflowersatWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AstaffmemberdecoratesasignofShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June2,(Xinhua/MaNing)PhototakenonJune4,2018showsredlanternsinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhuZheng)PhototakenonJune4,2018showsaninstallationmadeofflowersinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AstreetcarrunsonastreetinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AbusrunsonastreetinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/MaNing)

AnaerialviewofHuangguoshuWaterfallasbiggestflowoftheyearthundersdowninAnshuncity,SouthwestChinasGuizhouProvince,June4,heregion.(Photo/ChinaNewsService)HuangguoshuWaterfallinAnshuncity,SouthwestChinasGuizhouProvince,June4,2018.(Photo/ChinaNewsService)AnaerialviewofHuangguoshuWaterfallinAnshuncity,SouthwestChinasGuizhouProvince,June4,2018.(Photo/ChinaNewsService)AnaerialviewofHuangguoshuWaterfallinAnshuncity,SouthwestChinasGuizhouProvince,June4,2018.(Photo/ChinaNewsService),2018.(Photo/Xinhua)

  AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)

  PhototakenonJune2,2018showsthenightviewnearWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)PhototakenonJune1,2018showsthereflectionofWusiSquareonaballooninQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JinLiangkuai)PhototakenonJune1,2018showsthereflectionofWusiSquareonaballooninQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JinLiangkuai)PanoramaphototakenonJune2,2018showsthenightviewofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/YinGang)PanoramaphototakenonJune2,2018showsthenightviewofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/YinGang)PhototakenonJune4,2018showsthenightviewofZhanqiaoPierinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)PhototakenonJune4,2018showsthenightviewofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/MaNing)PhototakenonMay31,2018showsthenightviewofOlympicSailingCenterinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/WangJianhua)PhototakenonMay3,2018showsthenightviewofFushanBayinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)PhototakenonMay7,2018showsthenightviewofFushanBayinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofTuandaoinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofQingdaoPortinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay7,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonApril16,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofQingdaoSportsCenterinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin2000(upper)andonMay13,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofZhanqiaoPierinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofMaidaoinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofOlympicSailingCenter,whichusedtobeashipyard,inQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin2000(upper)andonApril16,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)

  "Spiderman"NieXiaohufromHunanProvincecollectshoneyonthecliff.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Nieusesaknifetopeelthehoneyoffthebeehive.(Photo/ChinaDaily)XikouwaivillageandBaozili,andsincethenmorethan600b,331householdsinthetownhaveatotalof11,200clustersofAsianhoneybees,producing90,,000yuan($934).Nieusesaknifetopeelthehoneyoffthebeehive.(Photo/ChinaDaily)"Spiderman"NieXiaohufromHunanProvincecollectshoneyonthecliff.(Photo/ChinaDaily)"Spiderman"NieXiaohufromHunanProvincecollectshoneyonthecliff.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Nieexaminesthebeehivetomakesureitisintact.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Morethan100woodenboxeshangfromacliffinXikouwaivillage.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Bee-keepingandhoneyproductionisthrivingintheYanshanMountainsareaMorethan100woodenboxesabout60centimetershighand40centimeterswidehangfromacliffinXikouwaivillage,Fengjiabutown,Miyundistrict,,itisthelargestcliffbeefe,"nannies"sbeekeepingcooperatives,andtheycallthemselves"thespidermen".

  AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)AgovernmentmarineveterinarianisbeinghelpedbyvolunteerstoremoveplasticsfromthestomachofadeadmalepilotwhaleattheMarineandCoastalResourceResearchandDevelopmentCenterinSongklaprovince,Thailand,June1,chofthewhalethatdiedinThailandafterafive-dayefforttosaveit.(Photo/Agencies)ChildrenplayonasquareinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)StudentsofamiddleschoolplayfootballinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmangoeswindsurferinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,May4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)CitizensposeforphotoattheOlympicParkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)ChildrenpracticerollerskatinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmandoesexercisesataparkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)AsailboatisseeninthewaterinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/YinGang)

  PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)

  AerialphototakenonJune2,2018showsthedryriverbedofSonghuaRiverinHarbin,northeastChina,thelowestforsome11years,onMay29.(Xinhua/WangKai)AerialphototakenonJune2,2018showstheexposedriverbedofSonghuaRiverinHarbin,northeastChina,thelowestforsome11years,onMay29.(Xinhua/WangKai)AerialphototakenonJune2,2018showsthedryriverbedofSonghuaRiverinHarbin,northeastChina,thelowestforsome11years,onMay29.(Xinhua/WangKai)AerialphototakenonJune2,2018showstheexposedriverbedofSonghuaRiverinHarbin,northeastChina,thelowestforsome11years,onMay29.(Xinhua/WangKai)AerialphototakenonJune2,2018showstheexposedriverbedofSonghuaRiverinHarbin,northeastChina,thelowestforsome11years,onMay29.(Xinhua/WangKai)AerialphototakenonJune2,2018showstheexposedriverbedofSonghuaRiverinHarbin,northeastChina,thelowestforsome11years,onMay29.(Xinhua/WangKai)

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创意设计引领产业发展进入想象力时代

2019-04-25 10:51:46 来源: 解放日报
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  今年是上海被联合国教科文组织授予“设计之都”称号的第七个年头。跨越“十二五”,迎来“十三五”,上海文创产业在过去的五年,交出了一份可喜的答卷。“十二五”期间,上海文化创意产业保持快速增长,年均增长率接近14%。数据显示,2015实现生产总值9451亿元,占全市第三产业增加值的比重达到17.9%,占全市GDP比重的12.1%,文化创意产业已经成为上海的重要支柱产业之一。

  过去的七年间,从党的十七届六中全会上提出大力发展文化产业,到国务院提出创意设计与各行业融合发展,再到上海对接国家“中国制造2025”战略部署,上海的创意设计产业实现了从“十一五”关注设计到“十二五”重视设计的转变。同时,对创意设计的理解和认识也得到全面提升,创意设计已经从以往推动产业升级的抓手,升级到提升制造业发展的“牛鼻子”地位。从传统设计到大设计,再到为各行业导入设计思维。可以说,创意设计已经渗透到每个行业中,成为无处不在的动力因子。

  随着上海国际竞争力与日俱增,以及上海加快建设具有全球影响力的科创中心,创意设计也越来越被视为这座城市的核心竞争力之一。

  近日,“2016国际创意城市设计创新论坛”在上海举行。本次论坛的主题是“设计与创新的源动力”。论坛邀请了国内外创新、设计及投资领域内的相关专家,他们将“设计与创新”放在城市跨越式发展、社会结构性进步的大视野之下,探讨创新设计的动力与未来,旨在探索“十三五”期间,上海如何借助国际平台提升创新设计能级,吸引更多企业借助创新设计推动产品、服务及产业发展。

  跨界交互正成为全球趋势

  论坛上,来自剑桥大学的设计创新研究中心主任James Moultrie表示:设计的价值正日益引起人们的关注。

  剑桥大学最近的一个课题评估了设计力对于不同经济体的影响。James Moultrie以巴西和韩国两国为例进行了分析。过去的几年,巴西GDP增幅较小,但是韩国的GDP增长则非常明显。从设计密集型领域切入研究发现,2011年设计密集型产品的出口占到巴西总出口量的10%,这些产品大多为鞋子、衣服、电子机械等,到了2015年,这一比重在下降,但是鞋子的出口额却在上升,可以发现设计比重在这些领域中是下降的。而在韩国,2011年设计密集型产品占到出口比重的30%,2015年基本维持不变,但绝对数值已经增长了3倍。

  设计密集型产业的增长,也意味着从需求出发的产业转型之变。我国推动供给侧结构性改革的背后,就是要提升创意设计产业在产业发展中的作用。联合国教科文组织“创意城市”(上海)推进办公室秘书长刘波英说:“当下推动供给侧结构性改革的核心问题是我们供给给消费者的产品,是否能够让消费者满意,是否足够激发消费者的需求,这个核心问题的解决靠的就是创新设计。”传统而言,创新和设计之间有严格界定,但事实上它们有很大的关联,把创新设计放在一起讨论的背后是要实现跨界交互,让设计不仅和科技还要和各行业融合发展。

  事实上,这种融合已在全球范围内被提倡。James Moultrie同时管理着剑桥大学一个连接设计师与科学家的项目。传统而言,当我们去思考做一个藻类发电实验时,科学家会从技术层面着手,但James Moultrie则引入设计师参与到这个实验项目中,他们首先考虑的不是实验如何做,而是去想象这个技术可以怎么做,这个技术转化为大型项目又可以怎么做。“他们的思考角度是先勾勒出藻类发电站的愿景,基于这样的愿景,设计师与科学家便站在另一个角度去思考这样的实验。这种互动的方式可能成为未来科研的方向,为科学家提供新的灵感和认知。”James Moultrie说。

  将设计思维导入企业和社会管理

  今天很多企业已经有了许多引入创意设计的想法,但如何导入则值得思考。火柴盒能有什么用?“我们通常想到火柴盒的功能是放火柴,但当我们把火柴拿出来之后,看到了火柴盒,我们能更快想到火柴盒还有其他功能。这就是思维定式,思维定式让我们更快的做出反应,更专业的掌握标准流程。”以色列SIT (Systematic Inventive Thinking)全球副总裁Tamar Chelouche女士说。

  SIT是一家长期专注于研究企业创新的机构。SIT通过对在全球收集的近20多万个成功案例深入分析发现,不同创新成果的成功拥有一些相同的模式。70%到80%的创新,都有五种路径可以解释。SIT将此总结为创新的“加减乘除”:一个现有资源被赋予一项新任务(加法);某些重要部件被移除(减法);某个部分被复制并且发生改变(乘法);某个组件在时间或空间上被分割或移动(除法);两个以上的无关属性被建立新关系(属性依存)。

  Tamar Chelouche指出,对于很多正在转型中的企业而言,常常会“从产品功能上再思考,深度挖掘才能设计出很好的产品”,但这样的思维定式可能会限制住设计师的思维。“往往打破形式,我们才能发现新的功能与需求。”

  在社会治理创新之中,利用设计思维往往会给我们带来意外的惊喜。美国一座城市通过在城市中心开放体育馆,并采取独特的停车策略即“时间越长停车费越低”,鼓励人们在体育馆旁边逗留更长时间,在减少交通拥挤压力的同时,成功让这个区域在晚上的活跃度得到提升。

  设计思维对企业而言,能将品牌、用户体验、研发等各个部门很好地连接起来。“一个好的产品,良好的使用功能只是基础,情感功能能增强人们购买的意愿,而社会功能则让它带有传播的特性,表现出拥有者自身的属性。”Tamar Chelouche说。

  技术与资本塑造“超级设计师”

  随着技术的发展,今天大数据已经成为企业决策的重要手段。面对大数据时代,洛可可创始人贾伟提出了“超级设计师”的理想蓝图。在大数据技术的帮助下,对接BAT用户数据、消费数据和供应链数据,一个设计师能获得很多灵感。但贾伟认为,这还不足以成为一个“超级设计师”。“设计师最大的改变,应该是与大数据联动后和人工智能结合,在预见未来的基础上做出划时代的设计。”

  “一种是情理之中,一种是意料之外,也许大数据的预测是情理之中,但是很多时候更宝贵的可能是意料之外。”同济大学创意设计学院院长娄永琪认为,在农业时代、工业时代和IT时代之后,是属于设计师的想象力时代。

  正因为设计的力量被越来越看好,近年来资本对创意设计机构也是青睐有加。???????

  12年前创业时,资本对贾伟来说,显得并不重要。但当洛可可有了1000位设计师,并触及文创领域,开始和故宫、敦煌合作后,逐渐发现了资本的力量,远比他想象的重要的多。

  “洛可可如何从1000人变成10万、100万甚至1000万个设计师?你们应该做一个像滴滴一样的互联网平台式公司。”两年前,资本方中国文化创意产业投资公司找到洛可可,并讲了上述一段话,而这也打开了贾伟设计事业的另一扇窗。

  作为投资界人士,中国加速投资总监奥斯卡·拉莫斯认为,资本对创意企业来说非常重要。事实上,在资本的世界里,中小创意设计公司很难和资本力量雄厚的大公司抗衡。“小公司不仅要靠他们好的创意,而且要执行这些创意。要执行并实现创意,需要有资本助力。”

  资本推动设计做大做强的基础是设计本身对于市场的理解要靠谱。但目前中国的情况是,设计理念与市场需求之间仍有较大差距。“现在已经进入以数据为基础,以交互为手段的创新设计时代,设计师的专业领域要扩大,培养设计师的模式也要有所创新”。娄永琪说。

  设计师想象力时代到来

  人工智能、大数据、VR/AR等都会成为设计师新的工具,但最终赢得市场的则是设计师的想象力与执行力。

  “十三五”期间,上海将通过集聚大师来推动创意设计产业发展。据上海市文创办副主任陈跃华介绍,上海关注的大师有两类:一类是国家级大师,这类大师是做具体工作的,尤其是能够创作出与上海这座国际大都市地位相匹配的大作品的大师。“这类大师如果在上海要加强培养,不在上海的要加大引进力度,引不进来的要进行联盟共享,人不进来,思想进来。不能长期在这里工作,可以短期在这里工作。”陈跃华说。

  第二类大师,是行业里的创业大师。“他们善于‘无中生有’,原本不存在的,但通过这些大师的资源整合,这个东西就出来了。”陈跃华说,这类大师非常重要,他们能够占据高端,能够凝聚人才,凝聚资本,凝聚资源。

  最近北京和上海两地的文化创意团队正着手打造世界手工艺联盟,并在上海建立世界手工艺博览园。这个联盟对于上海打造高水平艺术平台具有极其重要的推动作用,也为各类大师的设计创作,起到重要推动作用。陈跃华表示,通过联合国教科文组织全球创意城市网络,上海要融合国内外的设计理念与设计资源,实现共赢。陈跃华同时表示,“十三五”期间,上海将精心布局,通过大力发展文创园区,集聚创意设计大师,推动创意设计产业发展。此外,加快建设上海市文化创意产品交易诚信平台,保护设计、保护创新,发展收藏经济。

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